Emacs开发VC程序 zz

[http://emacser.com/dev-vc.htm]Emacs开发VC程序
背景
前些日子,微软宣布Visual studio 2010的EMACS扩展。此前,Visual studio 2005
6.01已然引入了Emacs的键盘模拟,这次又将Visual studio
的Emacs化更进一步,这种事发生在Microsoft这样无利不起早的企业,原因呢,你懂得。
话说,武功再高,也怕菜刀。Emacs玩的再溜,也保不齐哪天你要去开发Visual studio
程序。习惯了Emacs的高效,使用Visual studio
就是一个杯具1。这种情况,一般一颗红心,两手准备。一颗红心:cosplay,两手准备:1.Visual studio 扮Emacs
2Emacs扮Visual studio 。VC扮EMACS非官方扩展式visEMACS
官方的Emacs扩展2
不过,我对这种方式的经验总结:享受不到Emacs的周到体贴,却净受VS的大小姐脾气了。不给力啊,不给力。不过,作为出差旅行,远程登陆,客户服务时,没有Emacs可用时,让Visual
studio 模拟一把Emacs,也不失为一种没有办法的好办法了。这个方法不是本文的重点,所以不深入。EMACS扮VC配置EMACS为IDE
一个基本的IDE,必备功能:编辑,编译,调试。编辑应该很多人都很眼红Visual studio的销魂的插件visual assist
x吧。实时语法检查,快速打开文件,h,cpp文件,回到刚才编辑的地方,函数跳转,自动补全,插入模板。可以号称操作系统的Emacs怎么可能没有这些功能呢?尽管这些不在本文范围,但是稍稍提及功能在Emacs中的对应,有兴趣想深入的请Google,
Duckduckgo, Wikipedia.VXA功能 EMACS对应功能
实时语法检查 Flymake 3
快速打开文件 ECB, 快速打开文件
h,cpp跳转 CEDET 4
回到刚才编辑的地方 Recent-jump5
函数跳转 CEDET 4
自动补全 Auto-complete 6
插入模板 Yasnippet 7
快速打开文件
至于快速打开文件一项,我感觉ECB做的并不是特别好,如果C++程序的头文件和实现文件没有在一个文件夹,很难找到。所以我用了一个比较笨的方法,生成文件的列表到一个文件,使用Emacs的查找功能和打开当前光标下文件的功能
find-file-at-point,我把它编定到了C-c
C-f。这个过程还有两个副产物供cscope和etags用。确认你的机器上有cscope, find,
etags8,将以下代码成为uptags.bat,放到系统的pathz中的某个文件夹下。
%1
cd %2
rm TAGS
rm cscope.files
rm filelist.txt
rm cscope.in.out
rm cscope.out
rm cscope.po.out
if "%3" EQU "java" set PARAM=-name "*.java" -print
if "%3" EQU "c++" set PARAM=-name "*.cpp" -print -o -name "*.r" -print
-o -name "*.[hcrHs]" -print -o -name "*.hpp" -print -o -name "*.lua"
-print
echo %PARAM%
find . %PARAM% > cscope.files
less cscope.files | xargs etags -aR
cscope -bkq -i cscope.files
cp cscope.files filelist.txt
find . -name "*.txt" -print >> filelist.txt
假设我们的C++工程在d:mydocumentsworkspacecpp,那么调用方法9为:uptags d: d:mydocumentsworkspacecpp c++
java工程在d:mydocumentsworkspacejava, 那么调用方法为:uptags d: d:mydocumentsworkspacejava java
那么打开文件helloworld.cpp的操作就是:C-x b filelist.txt , C-s helloworld.cpp, C-c
C-f, RET。确实,稍显复杂,期待有更好的方法。编译编译的话基本上还是要靠Visual studio 自带的工具:nmake10,msdev。本文主要介绍msdev。使用msdev.exe
msdev.exe位于安装路径下的bin目录,如我本机使用Visual studio 6.0,目录为"C:Program
FilesMicrosoft Visual StudioVC98bin"。 直接调用msdev.exe,即启动Visual
studio的UI界面,同时msdev.exe也接受命令行调用。我们看其帮助。
msdev /?
Usage:
MSDEV [myprj.dsp|mywksp.dsw] – load project/workspace
[<filename>] – load source file
/? – display usage information
/EX <macroname> – execute a VBScript macro
/OUT <filename> – redirect command line output to a file
/USEENV – ignore tools.options.directories settings
/MAKE [<target>] […] – build specified target(s)
[<project> – <platform> <configname>]
[[<project>|ALL] – [DEBUG|RELEASE|ALL]]
/CLEAN – delete intermediate files but don't build
/REBUILD – clean and build
/NORECURSE – don't build dependent projects
假设我们有这么一个工程,路径为d:Mydocumentsworkbench,工程目录结构,Configuration如下图
可以通过命令msdev.exe来编译工程test211。
C:Program FilesMicrosoft Visual StudioVC98binmsdev.exe test2.dsw
/Make "test2 – Win32 Debug" /NORECURSE
同样,使用clean,rebuild可以清除、重编译该工程。将test2 改为test21,test23,即改变编译对象。
总这样写也很麻烦,而且为了在Emacs中调用 ,我们将其写成一个批处理。d:
cd d:Mydocumentsworkbench
set project=%1
set target=%2
if "%1" == "" set project=test2
if "%2" == "no" set target=/NORECURSE
msdev test2.dsw /Make "%project% – Win32 Debug" %target%
保存为makTest2.bat。调用方式为:makeTest2 [工程 [目标]]
默认为编译test2 的 /NORECURSE。如果要编译test23的rebuild,调用方式为:makeTest2 test23 /REBUILD
调试实际上,如果有了编辑,编译,那么调试就不需要了。因为调试器是一切罪恶他妈12。哈哈,当然是开玩笑的了。作为一个有思想的程序员,要认清楚,编译器,调试器都只是恶魔,程序员本身,也就是我们,才是恶魔他妈(当然大部分是他爹^_^ )。哈哈,那么作为恶魔的产生者,我们当然要丰富自己的技能,而调试就是一个必杀技。我杀,bug闪……..cdb-gud
要用Emacs调试Visual studio 的程序,首先需要一个el – cdb-gud.el
。cdb-gud使用Microsoft的命令行调试器cdb来调试程序。
cdb-gud.el只需下载,然后在.emacs中使用下面语句,cdb-gud就随时待命了。
;;+cdb [[http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/vstudio/default.aspx][Visual studio ]]
(when (eq system-type 'windows-nt)
(load-file "~/.emacs.d/lisp/cdb-gud.el")
)
调用cdb-gud: M-x cdb RET。Microsoft命令行调试器cdb.exe
如果你是一个Windows程序员,Windbg听说过吗?如果没有听说过,我建议你去看看《软件调试》,这本书讲的非常的透彻。
注意,这是一本厚度为1000页的砖头书。如果你没有耐心去读这么厚的书,那么还有一个选择,《Windows用户态程序高效排错》,
内容236页,内容写的不多,但是书内提供的资源。
两本书排名不分先后。那么cdb就在Windbg的安装目录下。Windbg是Windows下的能用户态调试核心态调试的强大的图形界面的调试器。那么,简而言之,尽管不太准确13,cdb就是非图形界面的调试用户态程序的windbg。
简要介绍一下cdb:cdb就是一个命令行的调试器,over。深入探讨一学cdb: 我想很深入的探讨一下cdb,但是实在是没有如此深厚的内功,但是我可以推荐一些内容供有兴趣的去深入。WINDBG安装目录内的debugger.chm
windbg info
MSDN的帮助
强烈推荐将windbg info 打印出来在手边供不时查阅之需。现在,来启动cdb-gud吧:M-x cdb RETShowtime14!例子
建立一个Visual studio 的console典型的Hello world工程(比如刚才的test2),源代码如下15:
#include "stdafx.h"
#include <string.h>
void assign (int a[], int n)
{
for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
{
if (a[i] == 0)
{
a[i] = i;
}
}
}int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{ int a[100];
assign(a, 100);
for (int i = 0; i < 100; ++i)
{
printf("%dt", a[i]);
} return 0;
}
通过上边程序,我们期待打出所有0-99的数,每个数是间隔一个制表符,每十个数打出一个换行。我们编译运行代码,得到结果:-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
-858993460 -858993460 -858993460 -858993460
有点奇怪,为什么没有得到我们需要的东西呢??从代码中貌似看不到直接的证据证明我们的代码逻辑的错误。我们就祭出cdb。M-x cdb RETminibuffer: cdb d:Mydocumentsworkbenchtest2debugtest2.exe 会有以下界面提示。Microsoft (R) Windows Debugger Version 6.11.0001.404 X86
Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.CommandLine: d:/Mydocuments/workbench/tmp/VCTest/test2/test/Debug/test.exe
Symbol search path is:
C:symbolsXpSp3;d:/Mydocuments/workbench/via/helios/coyote/Bin/MULTIMEDIA_PRO_240x320_Debug
Executable search path is:
*** WARNING: Unable to verify checksum for test.exe
ModLoad: 00400000 0042c000 test.exe
ModLoad: 7c900000 7c9b2000 ntdll.dll
ModLoad: 7c800000 7c8f6000 C:WINDOWSsystem32kernel32.dll
(a90.1eb8): Break instruction exception – code 80000003 (first chance)
eax=00241eb4 ebx=7ffd9000 ecx=00000000 edx=00000001 esi=00241f48 edi=00241eb4
eip=7c90120e esp=0012fb20 ebp=0012fc94 iopl=0 nv up ei pl nz na po nc
cs=001b ss=0023 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=003b gs=0000 efl=00000202
ntdll!DbgBreakPoint:
7c90120e cc int 3
0:000> cdb: Reading initial command 'l+*;l-s'
Source options are ffffffff:
1/t – Step/trace by source line
2/l – List source line at prompt
4/s – List source code at prompt
8/o – Only show source code at prompt
Source options are fffffffb:
1/t – Step/trace by source line
2/l – List source line at prompt
8/o – Only show source code at prompt
0:000>
0:000> bp main
bp 表示打断点,断点的方式有几种:函数名,文件行数,内存地址。但是我最喜欢的还是:当调试过程已经在运行,*在Emacs中打开文件,走到需要打断点的行,C-x space*,断点就打到该行,很给力啊。0:000> g
Breakpoint 0 hit
test!main:
0040d880 55 push ebp
0:000> p
test!main+0x1e:
0040d89e 6a64 push 64h
0:000> t
test!ILT+15(?assignYAXQAHHZ):
00401014 e907c80000 jmp test!assign (0040d820)
0:000> p
test!assign:
0040d820 55 push ebp
0:000> p
test!assign+0x18:
0040d838 c745fc00000000 mov dword ptr [ebp-4],0 ss:0023:0012fd8c=cccccccc
g==go,所以表示开始运行程序。p 单步跟踪,不进入子函数。t 单步跟踪,但是进入子函数。不出意外,当你使用p或者t跟踪程序的时候,源代码窗口已经打开,同时随着跟踪,相应的代码行也会高亮。0:000> dv
a = 0x0012fdf0
n = 100
i = -858993460
0:000> p
test!assign+0x32:
0040d852 8b55fc mov edx,dword ptr [ebp-4] ss:0023:0012fd8c=00000000
0:000> dv
a = 0x0012fdf0
n = 100
i = 0
0:000> dt a[0]
Local var @ 0x12fd98 Type a[ 100]
[0] 0x0012fdf0
-> -858993460
0:000> dt a[1]
Local var @ 0x12fd98 Type a[0]
[1] 0x0012fdf0
-> -858993460
0:000> dt a[i]
Local var @ 0x12fd98 Type a[1]
[0] 0x0012fdf0
-> -858993460
dv:显示当前的局部变量。dt: 显示指定的变量。当前发现为什么a数组的值怎么是负数,不是期待的0呢?0:000> k
ChildEBP RetAddr
0012fd90 0040d8ac test!assign+0x32
[D:MydocumentsworkbenchtmpVCTesttest2testtest.cpp @ 10]
0012ff80 00401209 test!main+0x2c
[D:MydocumentsworkbenchtmpVCTesttest2testtest.cpp @ 21]
0012ffc0 7c817077 test!mainCRTStartup+0xe9 [crt0.c @ 206]
WARNING: Stack unwind information not available. Following frames may be wrong.
0012fff0 00000000 kernel32!RegisterWaitForInputIdle+0x49
0:000> .frame 1
01 0012ff80 00401209 test!main+0x2c
[D:MydocumentsworkbenchtmpVCTesttest2testtest.cpp @ 21]
0:000> dv
argc = 1
i = -858993460
Type information missing error for a
0:000>
k:打印出当前的栈内容.frame:跳转到栈中的第几帧,当前为第0帧。在.frame 1后,我们注意到以下代码:int a[100];
assign(a, 100);
貌似a[ 100]没有初始化吧。0:000> q
然后修改代码后#include "stdafx.h"
#include <string.h>
void assign (int a[], int n)
{
for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
{
if (a[i] == 0)
{
a[i] = i;
}
}
}int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{ int a[100]={0};
assign(a, 100);
for (int i = 0; i < 100; ++i)
{
if (0 == (i % 10))
{
printf("n");
}
printf("%dt", a[i]);
} return 0;
}
编译运行,结果:testdebugtest.exe0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49
50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59
60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69
70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79
80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
那么cdb简单使用就介绍完了。然而,其实很多cdb的强大功能都没有介绍到:可以调试程序崩溃时留下的内存转储文件dump,调出其堆栈休息。
可以附挂到一个正在运行的程序。
远程调试
显示,执行代码
处理断点(支持复杂的条件断点)
读写内存地址
反汇编
多线程调试
Windows符号文件
对于一般的console程序,可能这样就够了。但是在调试广大的Windows程序时,哪能不接触Windows的API啊,调试这些个玩意儿,才是让人头痛的东西呢,没有源代码!!cdb的一个机制可以让你没有源代码的情况下看到很多Windows的公开数据结构。
首先,先查看自己的系统的版本,在我的电脑->右键->属性,我可以看到我的系统是Microsoft Windos XP
Professional Service Pace 3, 那么我就来这里下载Windows的相应的符号文件。将其安装到本机,比如:C:symbolsXpSp3。添加环境变量:_NT_ALT_SYMBOL_PATH,设其值为安装目录。经此设置,cdb在调试时就可以看到Windows API的符号文件。更多内容,还请参考帮助文档或者我推荐的两本书。Footnotes:
1 @木鱼指出 6.0中的Epsilon即为emacs模式。 可查到资料中最早的是2005, 来源猛击我。 但是有可能更早,如果有资料,麻烦请留言告之.2 此处没有贬低Visual studio 的意思,只是我中Emacs的毒已太深,用其它什么都不爽:)3 下载链接Visual studio Emacs emulation addon4 flymake配置见http://marcelotoledo.com/2007/07/11/emacs-flymake/5 CEDET配置见http://emacser.com/c-cedet.htm6 recent-jump 配置见http://liuminzhao.com/emacs/recent-jump-el-for-emacs/7 auto-complete 配置见http://emacser.com/auto-complete.htm8 yasnippet主页http://code.google.com/p/yasnippet/9 cygwin, mingw, msys, unixutils10 好吧,我承认这个调用方法很蛋疼,如果你的工程比较少的话,其实可以将路径,程序类型什么的写到文件里,多整几个文件即可。upCppProject1Tags.bat,
upCppProject2Tags.bat,upJavaPro1Tags.bat,upJavaPro2Tags.bat。11 此文 介绍了如何使用nmake,但是恕我直言,我在Visual studio 的安装目录里没有找到nmake。12 如果不成功,请注意检查大小写和空格。13 调试器,恶魔之母 http://stackoverflow.com/questions/602138/is-a-debugger-the-mother-of-all-evil14 其实,用户态的windbg是图形界面的cdb。15 谨以此名纪念我经历的一个软件项目:Showtime 0.7。16 请注意,这是实验代码,所以请忽略魔幻数,程序是否有意义等话题。15 请注意,这是实验代码,所以请忽略魔幻数,程序是否有意义等话题。

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